WordPress 5+ has option to use either Classic Editor via plugin or built-in Block Editor.
Post Formats are clearly visible in Classic Editor. But in Block Editor, they are visible under Status and Visibility options.
Example: How to create Quote Post (Block Editor)
- Go to Posts > Add New
- Select Post Format Quote in Status and Visibility Panel
- Now in Block Editor, add your quote via Quote Block
- Assign Featured Image for your post
Hope it will help you.